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18.04.06. - Íå ïîçâîëèòü îïîðî÷èòü ïàòðèîòèçì!(èíòåðâüþ ñ Ì.Äåëÿãèíûì)
: 18.04.2006 @ 09:20:05 : komochkin

Íîâîñòè
                                        Ïðåäîñòåðå÷ü îò ñîó÷àñòèÿ
                                                          Èíòåðâüþ ñ Ì. Äåëÿãèíûì

— Ìèõàèë Ãåííàäüåâè÷, êàê Âû óìóäðèëèñü ïðèçâàòü Îáùåñòâåííóþ ïàëàòó ïðåêðàòèòü ðàçæèãàòü ìåæíàöèîíàëüíóþ ðîçíü?
— ß ëèøü ïðåäîñòåðåã èõ îò ñîó÷àñòèÿ â êàìïàíèè ïî ðàçæèãàíèþ. È ìíå î÷åíü âàæíî, ÷òî ñðåäè ïîääåðæàâøèõ ìåíÿ íà êîíôåðåíöèè, íà êîòîðîé ÿ âûñòóïàë, áûë òàêîé òîíêèé è âûñîêîêóëüòóðíûé ïîëèòèê, êàê ÷ëåí Ñîâåòà Ôåäåðàöèè Àëåêñàíäð Ñåðãååâè÷ Äçàñîõîâ.
ß ãëóáîêî óáåæäåí, ÷òî áîðüáà ñ ðàñèçìîì è êñåíîôîáèåé ïðè âñåé ñâîåé íåîáõîäèìîñòè äîëæíà íå âûðîæäàòüñÿ â ðàçíóçäàííûé øàáàø è "îõîòó íà âåäüì", ðÿäîì ñ êîòîðîé ìàêêàðòèçì âûãëÿäèò ïèêíèêîì Õåëüñèíêñêîé ãðóïïû, à áûòü âîñïèòàòåëüíîé ðàáîòîé.
 Ðîññèè íå äîëæíî áûòü ìåñòà äëÿ ïîïûòîê îïîðî÷èòü è èñêîðåíèòü ïàòðèîòèçì, äëÿ ðàçæèãàíèÿ ìåæíàöèîíàëüíîé ðîçíè ïîä âèäîì áîðüáû ñ íåé. ß ïîçâîëþ ñåáå íàïîìíèòü, ÷òî íåò ðàçíèöû ìåæäó ðóñîôîáèåé è àíòèñåìèòèçìîì, à ëþäè, ñ÷èòàþùèå, ÷òî Õîëîêîñò äàë èì ëè÷íóþ è ïîæèçíåííóþ èíäóëüãåíöèþ îò âñåõ ãðåõîâ, â ìîðàëüíîì ïëàíå ìàëî ÷åì îòëè÷àþòñÿ îò ãèòëåðîâöåâ.
— Òî åñòü ÿ ïðàâèëüíî ïîíÿëà, ÷òî Âàì êàæåòñÿ, ÷òî íûíåøíÿÿ êàìïàíèÿ ïî áîðüáå ñ ôàøèçìîì íåñêîëüêî ÷ðåçìåðíà?
— Òåìà ìåæíàöèîíàëüíûõ îòíîøåíèé áîëåçíåííà è òðåáóåò êâàëèôèêàöèè. À òî íå òàê äàâíî ïðè ìíå îäèí âûñîêîó÷åíûé è çíàìåíèòûé áîðåö ñ "êñåíîôîáèåé" — èç Îáùåñòâåííîé ïàëàòû, êñòàòè — âûäóìàë íà ãîëóáîì ãëàçó íàöèþ "ÿìàëîâ" — ïî ßìàëî-Íåíåöêîìó îêðóãó…
Ñåé÷àñ ïîä ïðèêðûòèåì áîðüáû ñ "êñåíîôîáèåé" èäåò ðàçíóçäàííàÿ àíòèðóññêàÿ êàìïàíèÿ. Ìåæäó òåì, îïèñàíèå íåêîòîðûõ ñîáûòèé ñîçäàþò âïå÷àòëåíèå àïðèîðíîãî îïðàâäàíèÿ, íàïðèìåð, íàðêîòîðãîâëè â ñâÿçè ñ íàöèîíàëüíîñòüþ íàðêîòîðãîâöà.
— Íî ëîçóíã "Ðîññèÿ äëÿ ðóññêèõ" ïîëüçóåòñÿ áîëüøîé ïîïóëÿðíîñòüþ, êàê è Äâèæåíèå ïðîòèâ íåëåãàëüíîé èììèãðàöèè; Âàì ýòî íå ñòðàííî?
— À Âû ìîæåòå íàçâàòü õîòü îäíîãî âìåíÿåìîãî íå ïðîòèâíèêà, à ñòîðîííèêà "íåëåãàëüíîé èììèãðàöèè"? È äëÿ êîãî, ïî-Âàøåìó, äîëæíà áûòü Ðîññèÿ — äëÿ êèòàéöåâ, ïðè âñåì ê íèì óâàæåíèè?
Äâóñìûñëåííîñòü â òîì, ÷òî ñëîâî "ðóññêèé" îçíà÷àåò îäíîâðåìåííî è "ðóññêèõ ïî êðîâè", è "ðóññêèõ ïî êóëüòóðå". Íàöèþ — îáðàçóåò êóëüòóðà, à íå êðîâü; îãðîìíàÿ ÷àñòü òâîðöîâ âåëèêîé ðóññêîé êóëüòóðû, âêëþ÷àÿ íàçâàâøåãî âñå â Ðîññèè Ïóøêèíà è ñîçäàòåëÿ ñëîâàðÿ Äàëÿ ïî êðîâè áûëè íå ðóññêèìè — è êîãî ýòî âîëíóåò? ×åëîâåê, ïðèíèìàþùèé ðóññêóþ êóëüòóðó, ñòàíîâèòñÿ ðóññêèì, "áóäü îí õîòü íåãðîì ïðåêëîííûõ ãîäîâ". Äà, ñâîþ êóëüòóðó îí òîæå ñîõðàíÿåò, — íî â ýòîì è ñèëà, è æèçíåñïîñîáíîñòü, è ãèáêîñòü Ðîññèè, ÷òî îíà âáèðàåò â ñåáÿ è îñâàèâàåò âñå êóëüòóðû.
— Íî âñå-òàêè â "Ðîññèè äëÿ ðóññêèõ" "ðóññêèå" îáû÷íî âîñïðèíèìàþòñÿ ïî êðîâè, à íå ïî êóëüòóðå.
— Ïîëèòèêàìè — äà, à âîò íàñ÷åò íàñåëåíèÿ íå óâåðåí; îãðîìíàÿ ïîïóëÿðíîñòü ýòîãî ëîçóíãà è îòâåòû íà äîïîëíÿþùèå âîïðîñû ñâèäåòåëüñòâóåò êàê ðàç î ïðàâèëüíîì, "êóëüòóðíîì" åãî ïîíèìàíèè.
Íî, ãîâîðÿ î ïîëèòèêàõ, íè îäíà çàðåãèñòðèðîâàííàÿ ïîëèòè÷åñêàÿ ñèëà Ðîññèè — íè îäíà, âêëþ÷àÿ ËÄÏÐ — íå âûäâèãàåò ëîçóíã "Ðîññèÿ äëÿ ðóññêèõ". Òàê ÷òî íàçîéëèâîå ïîâòîðåíèå ýòîãî ëîçóíãà è íàãíåòàíèå èñòåðèè âîêðóã íåãî ëþäüìè, ïðåâðàòèâøèìè áîðüáó ñ "êñåíîôîáèåé" â äîõîäíûé áèçíåñ, — ýòî òîò ñàìûé ñëó÷àé, êîãäà ïîä âèäîì áîðüáû âåäåòñÿ ïðîïàãàíäà. Òàê â ôèëüìå "Ïëóòîâñòâî" â êà÷åñòâå íàèáîëåå ýôôåêòèâíîãî ñïîñîáà âíåäðåíèÿ íåêîåãî ôàêòà â îáùåñòâåííîå ñîçíàíèå áûëî íàçâàíî èìåííî îïðîâåðæåíèå: "Îïðîâåðãàòü, îïðîâåðãàòü è îïðîâåðãàòü!"
ß íàïîìíþ, ÷òî Ñîâåòñêèé Ñîþç ðàçâàëèëî îñêîðáëåííîå íàöèîíàëüíîå ÷óâñòâî â ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü ðóññêèõ è, åñëè ìû õîòèì ñîõðàíèòü Ðîññèþ, ìû íå äîëæíû çàáûâàòü îá ýòîì îïûòå è ñåé÷àñ. Òðåïåòíî îòíîñèòüñÿ ñëåäóåò ê íàöèîíàëüíûì ÷óâñòâàì âñåõ, à íå òîëüêî òåõ, êòî ãðîì÷å êðè÷èò èëè îáëàäàåò ìåíüøåé ÷èñëåííîñòüþ.
— Íî ðàáî÷èõ ðóê íå õâàòàåò, òàê ÷òî èììèãðàöèÿ íåîáõîäèìà, è íå òîëüêî ëþäåé ðóññêîé êóëüòóðû…
—  Ðîññèè íåîáõîäèìà ïîëèòèêà âíóòðåííåé èíòåãðàöèè îáùåñòâà. Ïðåæäå âñåãî íàäî ïîâûñèòü êà÷åñòâî ðàáî÷åé ñèëû: åñëè åå íå ñïàèâàòü, à ëå÷èòü è îáó÷àòü, äà åùå è óïðàâëÿòü åé ëó÷øå, ÷åì ñåé÷àñ, ïîòðåáíîñòü â ìèãðàöèè ðåçêî ñíèçèòñÿ, è ïîÿâèòñÿ âîçìîæíîñòü èíòåãðàöèè èììèãðàíòîâ.
È ïðè èììèãðàöèè, êîíå÷íî, íàäî ó÷èòûâàòü êóëüòóðíûé ôàêòîð: ïðèâëåêàòü èììèãðàíòîâ â ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü ðóññêîé êóëüòóðû, à îñòàëüíûõ èíòåãðèðîâàòü â íåå. Ýòî òðóä: â íåêîòîðûõ ñòðàíàõ ÑÍà óæå âûðîñëî ïîêîëåíèå, íå ãîâîðÿùèõ ïî-ðóññêè. Íóæíî ââåñòè ïðàâèëî, ÷òî ÷åëîâåê äëÿ ðàáîòû â Ðîññèè äîëæåí íå ïðîñòî çíàòü ðóññêèé ÿçûê, íî è âîñïðèíèìàòü ðóññêóþ êóëüòóðó, — íå óòðà÷èâàÿ, åñòåñòâåííî, ñâîåé, — è çíàòü çàêîíû. È ïðè ñîîòâåòñòâèè ýòèì òðåáîâàíèÿì îí äîëæåí áåç ðàçãîâîðîâ ïîëó÷àòü ðîññèéñêîå ãðàæäàíñòâî.
Èíà÷å ìû áóäåì îáðå÷åíû íà âîëíû ãàñòàðáàéòåðîâ, íå ñâÿçûâàþùèõ ñâîå áóäóùåå ñ íàøåé ñòðàíîé, à íàøå îáùåñòâî áóäåò ðàñêîëîòî íå èíòåãðèðóþùèìèñÿ â íåãî ëþäüìè.
— Òî åñòü äëÿ èíòåãðàöèè íàäî ñîêðàòèòü èììèãðàöèþ?
— Êîíå÷íî. Òðåõêðàòíîå óâåëè÷åíèå äàæå îôèöèàëüíîãî ìèãðàöèîííîãî ïðèðîñòà â 2005 ãîäó ïî ñðàâíåíèþ ñ 2004 íèêîìó â Ðîññèè íå íóæíî.
Íî, ðàçóìååòñÿ, äåëî ýòèì íå îãðàíè÷èâàåòñÿ; èíòåãðàöèÿ — ìíîãîïëàíîâàÿ çàäà÷à. Íàïðèìåð, íåîáõîäèìà áîðüáà ñ ýòíè÷åñêîé ïðåñòóïíîñòüþ. Âåäü êóëüòóðà îïðåäåëÿåò âñå ñôåðû äåÿòåëüíîñòè, â òîì ÷èñëå è ïðåñòóïíîé. Èãíîðèðîâàíèå êóëüòóðíîé ñïåöèôèêè íå ïîçâîëÿåò áîðîòüñÿ ñ ýòíè÷åñêîé ïðåñòóïíîñòüþ, ñîçäàåò îùóùåíèå áåçíàêàçàííîñòè è âñåäîçâîëåííîñòè — è, â èòîãå, ðàçæèãàåò ìåæíàöèîíàëüíóþ ðîçíü è ðàñêàëûâàåò íàøå îáùåñòâî.
— À Âû íèêîãäà íå ñëûøàëè, ÷òî ïðåñòóïíèê íå èìååò íàöèîíàëüíîñòè?
— Ýòà ôðàçà ïðèäóìàíà â ñóãóáî ïðàêòè÷åñêèõ öåëÿõ: ÷òîáû â ñëó÷àÿõ ýêñòðåìàëüíûõ ïî æåñòîêîñòè ïðåñòóïëåíèé íå âîçíèêàëî ñîáëàçíà ïåðåëîæèòü îòâåòñòâåííîñòü çà ïðåñòóïíèêîâ íà âåñü èõ íàðîä èëè íà íåâèííûõ ïðåäñòàâèòåëåé ýòîãî íàðîäà, ïðîñòî ïîäâåðíóâøèõñÿ ïîä ðóêó.
Îäíàêî ýòíè÷åñêàÿ ïðåñòóïíîñòü — ïðîôåññèîíàëüíûé ïîëèöåéñêèé òåðìèí. Âåçäå, â òîì ÷èñëå â ÔÁÐ, ñóùåñòâóþò ñïåöèàëüíûå îòäåëû ïî ðàçëè÷íûì ýòíè÷åñêèì ìàôèÿì, è òîëüêî íàøè ëèáåðàñòû íå ìîãóò ïîíèìàòü î÷åâèäíîãî.
— Çà ãðàíòû áîÿòñÿ?
— Äà íåò, íå âñå. Ó ìíîãèõ ýòî óæå ñòàëî ÷àñòüþ ëè÷íîñòè. Ìíå îäèí ïðàâîçàùèòíèê î÷åíü ïîíÿòíî ðàçúÿñíèë ïàðó ëåò íàçàä: åñëè ðóññêèé áüåò òàäæèêà — ýòî ïðåñòóïëåíèå íà íàöèîíàëüíîé ïî÷âå. À åñëè òàäæèê ðóññêîãî — íåîáõîäèìî äîêàçàòü, ÷òî ýòî èìåííî íà íàöèîíàëüíîé ïî÷âå, à íå áûòîâóõà. Âñå ÿñíî?
Âòîðîé ïðèìåð: äåëî Èâàííèêîâîé, êîòîðàÿ îòáèâàëàñü îò íàñèëüíèêà è ñëó÷àéíî åãî óáèëà. Íàñèëüíèê îêàçàëñÿ àðìÿíèíîì — è íè îäèí ïðàâîçàùèòíèê íå ñòàë çàùèùàòü ïðàâà Èâàííèêîâîé. ×òî ýòî, êàê íå äåìîíñòðàöèÿ îòíîøåíèÿ: ðóññêèõ ìîæíî íàñèëîâàòü, à îíè íå èìåþò ïðàâà äàæå îòáèâàòüñÿ? Ïîëó÷àåòñÿ, ÷òî, ïî êðàéíåé ìåðå, äëÿ ÷àñòè ïðàâîçàùèòíèêîâ ðóññêèå — íå ëþäè?
Äàëüøå — íåäàâíèé "Ìàðø Äðóæáû" â Ñàíêò-Ïåòåðáóðãå. "Æèâîé æóðíàë" çàáèò ôîòîãðàôèÿìè, íà êîòîðûõ ÷åðíîêîæèé ó÷àñòíèê ýòîãî ìàðøà äåðæèò ïðîõîæåãî çà ãîðëî è, ïîõîæå, ãëóìèòñÿ íàä íèì. ÑÌÈ ñîîáùàëè îá èçáèåíèÿõ ó÷àñòíèêàìè ýòîãî ìàðøà ïðîõîæèõ — è íèêòî íå óòî÷íÿë îáñòîÿòåëüñòâ. Áûëà ëè ýòî ñàìîçàùèòà èëè àãðåññèÿ? È âîîáùå, êòî-íèáóäü ýòè äðàêè ðàññëåäîâàë? Èëè â Ïèòåðå íðàâû óæå êàê â íåêîòîðûõ íàöèîíàëüíûõ ðåñïóáëèêàõ, â êîòîðûõ ïðåäñòàâèòåëè òèòóëüíîé íàöèè, îáðàçóÿ ìåíåå ÷åòâåðòè íàñåëåíèÿ, èìåþò ïî÷òè 90% â ìèëèöèè è ïîòîìó ìîãóò òâîðèòü ñ îñòàëüíûìè òðåìÿ ÷åòâåðòÿìè ïî÷òè âñå, ÷òî âçáðåäåò â ãîëîâó?
— Íî ïðîòèâ ïðèåçæèõ ñîâåðøàåòñÿ îòíîñèòåëüíî áîëüøå ïðåñòóïëåíèé, ÷åì ñîâåðøàþò îíè ïðîòèâ êîðåííûõ æèòåëåé…
— Çíàåòå, ïî ñòàòèñòèêå ñòðîãî íàîáîðîò. Íî, õîòü îíà è â ìîþ ïîëüçó, ïîëüçîâàòüñÿ åþ íå ñòîèò — âî-ïåðâûõ, ëàòåíòíîñòü íå òÿæêèõ ïðåñòóïëåíèé ïî-ïðåæíåìó óæàñàþùå âûñîêà è, âî-âòîðûõ, îíà ðàçëè÷íà â ðàçíûõ ñèòóàöèÿõ. Íàïðèìåð, êèòàåö ïîéäåò â ìèëèöèþ òîëüêî â èñêëþ÷èòåëüíîì ñëó÷àå — òàêîâà êóëüòóðà. À ïðåäñòàâèòåëè íåêîòîðûõ äðóãèõ íàöèîíàëüíîñòåé ëåãêî ïîéäóò ê "ñâîèì", ðàáîòàþùèì â ìèëèöèè, — à "÷óæèì" òóäà õîäà óæå íå áóäåò…
È, ïîòîì, "ïðèåçæèìè" îôèöèàëüíî ñ÷èòàþòñÿ èíîñòðàíöû, à åñëè ýòî ãðàæäàíå Ðîññèè? Íàïðèìåð, â Êàëìûêèè, ïî íåêîòîðûì ñîîáùåíèÿì, ïðîèñõîäèò ñëåäóþùåå: áåæåíöû èç ×å÷íè è Äàãåñòàíà, ñîãëàñíûå íà ëþáóþ ðàáîòó, âûòåñíÿþò ñ ðàáî÷èõ ìåñò, êîòîðûõ è òàê íåìíîãî, êàëìûêîâ. È áåçðàáîòíàÿ êàëìûöêàÿ ìîëîäåæü èäåò áèòü è óáèâàòü ðóññêèõ.
Åñëè ýòî äåéñòâèòåëüíî òàê, çàìàë÷èâàíèå ýòîé ñèòóàöèè, äà åùå ïîä ïðèêðûòèåì íûíåøíåé êàìïàíèè, — ïðÿìîå ïðåñòóïëåíèå.
— Íî ïî÷åìó ñóäû òàê ðåäêî âûíîñÿò îáâèíåíèÿ ïî ïðåñòóïëåíèÿì íà ïî÷âå ìåæíàöèîíàëüíîé íåíàâèñòè?
— Ïîñðåäñòâîì óñèëèé "îáùå÷åëîâåêîâ", íàöèîíàëüíîñòè â Ðîññèè îòìåíåíû è äàâíî — çàãëÿíèòå íà äîñóãå â ñâîé ïàñïîðò. Ïîýòîìó ïðåñòóïëåíèå ìîæåò áûòü ïðèçíàíî ñîâåðøåííûì íà ïî÷âå ìåæíàöèîíàëüíîé íåíàâèñòè, òîëüêî åñëè ïðåñòóïíèê ñàì ñîçíàëñÿ â ýòîì. À åñëè îí êðè÷àë, íàïðèìåð, íå "ñìåðòü òàêèì-òî", à ïðîñòî "óáüþ", þðèäè÷åñêè ïîâîäîâ äëÿ òàêîé êâàëèôèêàöèè ïðåñòóïëåíèÿ íåò.
— Íî â îáùåñòâå èäåò êîëîññàëüíûé ðîñò íàöèîíàëüíîé íåòåðïèìîñòè!
— ß ñàì ïîðàçèëñÿ, íî ýòî íå òàê. Ñõîæèå äàííûå ïîëó÷èë è îôèöèîçíûé Ôîíä "Îáùåñòâåííîå ìíåíèå", íî ó ìåíÿ ïîä ðóêîé äàííûå Öåíòðà Ëåâàäû, òàê ÷òî ñìîòðèòå.  2005 ïî ñðàâíåíèþ ñ 2004 ãîäîì â íàøåé ñòðàíå ðåçêî — ñ 42 äî 37% — ñîêðàòèëàñü äîëÿ ñîãëàñíûõ ñ òåì, ÷òî "âî ìíîãèõ áåäàõ Ðîññèè âèíîâàòû ïðåäñòàâèòåëè "íåðóññêèõ" íàöèîíàëüíîñòåé". Äîëÿ íåñîãëàñíûõ ñ ýòèì âûðîñëà ñ 52 äî 57%, è èõ ÷èñëåííîå ïðåâîñõîäñòâî ñòàëî áåçóñëîâíûì.
Äîëÿ æèòåëåé Ðîññèè, ÷óâñòâóþùèõ ê ñåáå âðàæäåáíîñòü ñî ñòîðîíû ïðåäñòàâèòåëåé äðóãèõ íàöèîíàëüíîñòåé "î÷åíü ÷àñòî è äîâîëüíî ÷àñòî", ñíèçèëàñü ñ 14 äî 12%. Äîëÿ ïðèçíàþùèõñÿ â òîì, ÷òî îíè ñàìè ÷óâñòâóþò âðàæäåáíîñòü ê ëþäÿì äðóãèõ íàöèîíàëüíîñòåé, óìåíüøèëàñü ñ 17 äî 13%.
Äîëÿ òåõ, êòî ÷óâñòâóåò âðàæäåáíîñòü ê ñåáå ïðåäñòàâèòåëåé äðóãèõ íàöèîíàëüíîé "ðåäêî èëè íèêîãäà", âûñîêà — ñ 85% â 2004 âûðîñëà â 2005 äî 86%. Äîëÿ ÷óâñòâóþùèõ ñâîþ ñîáñòâåííóþ âðàæäåáíîñòü ê ïðåäñòàâèòåëÿì äðóãèõ íàöèîíàëüíîñòåé "ðåäêî èëè íèêîãäà", âûðîñëà ñ 81 äî 85%.
Î çíà÷èìîñòè è àêòóàëüíîñòè ýòèõ âîïðîñîâ ñâèäåòåëüñòâóåò âåñüìà íåîáû÷íàÿ äëÿ îïðîñîâ òàêîãî ðîäà íåçíà÷èòåëüíîñòü äîëè çàòðóäíèâøèõñÿ ñ îòâåòîì — îíà íå ïðåâûøàåò 2%.
Äîëÿ ëþäåé, ïîëîæèòåëüíî îòíîñÿùèõñÿ ê ðàáîòå íà ñòðîéêàõ Ðîññèè "ãàñòàðáàéòåðîâ èç áëèæíåãî çàðóáåæüÿ", âûðîñëà ñ 25% â 1997 äî 30% â 2002 ã., óïàëà äî 21% â 2004 è âíîâü ïîäðîñëà â 2005 ã. äî 22%. Äîëÿ îòíîñÿùèõñÿ îòðèöàòåëüíî ðåçêî êîëåáàëàñü, — â 1997 ã. ñîñòàâèëà 33%, â 2000 — 38%, â 2002 — 27%, â 2004 — ñíîâà 38%, à â 2005 ñíèçèëàñü äî 35%. Íî ïðè ýòèõ ìåòàíèÿõ "êðàéíèõ" ïîêàçàòåëåé íåóêëîííî ðàñòåò ëèøü óäåëüíûé âåñ íàñåëåíèÿ, îòíîñÿùåãîñÿ ê "ãàñòàðáàéòåðàì" "íåéòðàëüíî", òî åñòü íîðìàëüíî: ñ 32% â 2000 äî 39% â 2002 è 2004 ã. è 42% — â 2005.
Äîëÿ ñîãëàñíûõ ñ òåì, ÷òî íàöèîíàëüíûå ìåíüøèíñòâà "èìåþò ñëèøêîì ìíîãî âëàñòè â ñòðàíå", ñíèçèëàñü ñ 47% â 2004 äî 45% â 2005 ã., à íå ñîãëàñíûõ ñ ýòèì âîçðîñëà ñ 45 äî 46%. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ñòîðîííèêè òîëåðàíòíîãî ïîäõîäà îêàçàëèñü (õîòÿ è íå â ïîäàâëÿþùåì) áîëüøèíñòâå.
Äîëÿ ñ÷èòàþùèõ "íåîáõîäèìûì îãðàíè÷èòü âëèÿíèå åâðååâ â îðãàíàõ âëàñòè, ïîëèòèêå, áèçíåñå, þðèäè÷åñêîé ñôåðå, ñèñòåìå îáðàçîâàíèÿ è øîó-áèçíåñå" ñíèçèëàñü çà òî æå âðåìÿ ñ 48 äî 44%, à âûñòóïàþùèõ ïðîòèâ ýòîãî âûðîñëà ñ 41 äî 44%, äîñòèãíóâ, òàêèì îáðàçîì, ðàâíîâåñèÿ. Ïðè ýòîì äàííûé âîïðîñ, êàê áû ýòî íè îáèæàëî îáå îçàáî÷åííûå èì ãðóïïû íàöèîíàëèñòîâ, íå âîñïðèíèìàåòñÿ êàê àêòóàëüíûé: äîëÿ çàòðóäíèâøèõñÿ ñ îòâåòîì îòíîñèòåëüíî âåëèêà è ñîñòàâëÿåò 11% â 2004 è 12% â 2005 ã.
— Íî äîëÿ ñ÷èòàþùèõ íåîáõîäèìûì îãðàíè÷èòü ïðîæèâàíèå â Ðîññèè ïðåäñòàâèòåëåé äðóãèõ íàöèîíàëüíîñòåé ðàñòåò!
— Âåðíî. Êàê ïðàâèëî, äëÿ îáâèíåíèé Ðîññèè ïðèâîäÿòñÿ äàííûå î ðîñòå ýòîé äîëè. Íî áîëüøèíñòâî âûñòóïàþùèõ çà ýòî, êàê ñëåäóåò èç îïðîñîâ, íå èñïûòûâàåò âðàæäû ê ïðåäñòàâèòåëÿì èíûõ íàöèîíàëüíîñòåé è ñàìî íå ñòàëêèâàåòñÿ ñ ïðîÿâëåíèÿìè âðàæäû ñ èõ ñòîðîíû. Ðîñò ýòèõ íàñòðîåíèé — ðåàêöèÿ íà êîíêðåòíûå æèçíåííûå òðóäíîñòè, âûçâàííûå ñòîëêíîâåíèåì ñî çíà÷èìûì ÷èñëîì íå æåëàþùèõ èëè íå ñïîñîáíûõ èíòåãðèðîâàòüñÿ ïðèåçæèõ.
Óäåëüíûé âåñ ñ÷èòàþùèõ íåîáõîäèìûì îãðàíè÷èòü ïðîæèâàíèå â Ðîññèè âñåõ íàöèé, êðîìå ðóññêîé, — à òîëüêî ýòîò ïîäõîä ÿâëÿåòñÿ ðàñèñòñêèì, à íå îòðàæàþùèì ðåàëüíûå, íå ðåøàåìûå ãîñóäàðñòâîì è ïîòîìó îáîñòðÿþùèåñÿ ïðîáëåìû, — íå òîëüêî îòíîñèòåëüíî ìàë, íî è ñíèçèëñÿ ñ 14% â 2004 äî 11% â 2005 ã.
Äîëÿ ñ÷èòàþùèõ, ÷òî íóæíî îãðàíè÷èòü â Ðîññèè ïðîæèâàíèå êàâêàçöåâ (âêëþ÷àÿ, êàê ìîæíî ïîíÿòü, âûõîäöåâ ñ ôîðìàëüíî ðîññèéñêîãî Ñåâåðíîãî Êàâêàçà), âûðîñëà ñ 46 äî 50%, êèòàéöåâ — ñ 39 äî 46% (ìàêñèìàëüíûé ðîñò — ïðè ïðàêòè÷åñêîì îòñóòñòâèè íàöèîíàëüíîé âðàæäû ê êèòàéöàì — îòðàæàåò êîëîññàëüíûå ïðîáëåìû, ñ êîòîðûìè ñòàëêèâàåòñÿ íàñåëåíèå Çàáàéêàëüÿ è Äàëüíåãî Âîñòîêà, à òàêæå ìíîãèõ ðåãèîíîâ Ñèáèðè, è ýêîíîìèêà Ðîññèè â öåëîì), âüåòíàìöåâ — ñ 39 äî 42%, åâðååâ — ñ 15 äî 18%.
Îñòàëàñü íà ïðîøëîãîäíåì óðîâíå äîëÿ ñ÷èòàþùèõ íåîáõîäèìûì îãðàíè÷èòü ïðîæèâàíèå âûõîäöåâ èç Ñðåäíåé Àçèè — 31% è óêðàèíöåâ (!!) — 8%. Ñ 32 äî 30% ñíèçèëàñü äîëÿ ñ÷èòàþùèõ íåîáõîäèìûì îãðàíè÷èòü ïðîæèâàíèå öûãàí.
Äîëÿ ñ÷èòàþùèõ, ÷òî ïðàâèòåëüñòâî Ðîññèè äîëæíî "îãðàíè÷èòü ïðèòîê ïðèåçæèõ" êàê òàêîâûõ, ðàñòåò íåóêëîííî — ñ 45% â 2002 äî 54% â 2004 è 59% â 2005 ã., ÷òî îòðàæàåò îáîñòðåíèå ñóùåñòâóþùèõ ïðîáëåì ïðè áåçäåéñòâèè êîððóìïèðîâàííîé è áåçîòâåòñòâåííîé ïðàâÿùåé áþðîêðàòèè. Äîëÿ ñòîðîííèêîâ ëèáåðàëüíîãî ïîäõîäà — "íå ñòàâèòü íà ïóòè ïðèåçæèõ àäìèíèñòðàòèâíûõ áàðüåðîâ è ïûòàòüñÿ èñïîëüçîâàòü èõ íà áëàãî Ðîññèè" — óìåíüøèëàñü â ñâÿçè ñ åãî âñå áîëåå î÷åâèäíîé íåàäåêâàòíîñòüþ ñ 44% â 2002 ã. (êîãäà îíà áûëà ïî÷òè ðàâíà äîëÿ ñòîðîííèêîâ îãðàíè÷åíèÿ) äî 38% â 2004 è 36% â 2005 ã. Òî, ÷òî ïðè ýòîì äîëÿ çàòðóäíÿþùèõñÿ ñ îòâåòîì óïàëà ñîîòâåòñòâåííî ñ 11% äî 8 è 5%, — ïðèçíàê ðîñòà àêòóàëüíîñòè ïðîáëåìû.
— Íî âñå-òàêè íà Èíòåðíåò-ôîðóìàõ î÷åíü ìíîãî àíòèñåìèòîâ.
— Âî-ïåðâûõ, íà Èíòåðíåò-ôîðóìàõ âîîáùå áîëüøå íåíîðìàëüíûõ, ÷åì â æèçíè. À, âî-âòîðûõ, âî âðåìÿ ìîíåòèçàöèè ëüãîò, êîãäà ðóêîâîäñòâî ñòðàíû äåéñòâèòåëüíî èñïóãàëîñü ìàñøòàáîâ ïðîòåñòà, äâå òðåòè, åñëè íå áîëüøå, Èíòåðíåò-àíòèñåìèòîâ ìãíîâåííî, êàê ïî ìàíîâåíèþ âîëøåáíîé ïàëî÷êè, ïåðåêâàëèôèöèðîâàëèñü â Èíòåðíåò-àíòèïåíñèîíåðîâ. À ïîòîì, êîãäà ïðîòåñò ñïàë, îíè îïÿòü ñòàëè àíòèñåìèòàìè. Òàê ÷òî ýòî áûëà ïî áîëüøåé ÷àñòè èíôîðìàöèîííàÿ âîéíà ïðîòèâ îïïîçèöèè è Ðîññèè, à íå ðåàëüíîå ñóìàñøåñòâèå.
— Íî åñëè ðîñò òîëåðàíòíîñòè â îòíîøåíèè ïðåäñòàâèòåëåé èíûõ íàðîäîâ è êîíôåññèé íàëèöî, òî ÷åì îáúÿñíèòü ïðîïàãàíäèñòñêóþ èñòåðèêó ïðåäñòàâèòåëåé ïðàâÿùåé áþðîêðàòèè — íà÷èíàÿ ñ "àíòèñåìèòñêîãî ïèñüìà" è ïîêàÿíèÿ Ïóòèíà â Îñâåíöèìå?
— Ó ìåíÿ áûëî îùóùåíèå, ÷òî Ïóòèí â Îñâåíöèìå íå ñòîëüêî êàÿëñÿ, ñêîëüêî îáâèíÿë ñâîþ ñòðàíó…
Íî â öåëîì èñòåðèêà ïðàâÿùåé áþðîêðàòèè — ïðèçíàê åå èñïóãà. Âåäü ïðè÷èíà íåîæèäàííîãî ðîñòà òîëåðàíòíîñòè, ñêîðåå âñåãî, — óõóäøåíèå óñëîâèé æèçíè îñíîâíîé ÷àñòè íàñåëåíèÿ, çàñòàâëÿþùåå åãî çàäóìûâàòüñÿ î ïðè÷èíàõ áåäñòâèé è ðàçâîðà÷èâàþùåå íåäîâîëüñòâî îò ïðåäñòàâèòåëåé èíûõ íàöèîíàëüíîñòåé è ðåëèãèé ê ïðàâÿùåé áþðîêðàòèè ñ åå ïîðî÷íîé è ðàçðóøèòåëüíîé ïîëèòèêîé.
Ýòîò ðàçâîðîò — î÷åâèäíàÿ óãðîçà âëàñòè. Ïîýòîìó îí àâòîìàòè÷åñêè âûçûâàåò åå æåñòêóþ ðåàêöèþ, ïðèâëåêàþùóþ âíèìàíèå îáùåñòâà ê îáîñòðåíèþ ýòíîêîíôåññèîíàëüíûõ ïðîáëåì è îáúåêòèâíî ðàçæèãàþùóþ èõ (â òîì ÷èñëå â ôîðìå àãðåññèâíîé íàâÿç÷èâîé ðóñîôîáèè) áåç óñèëèé ïî èõ ðàçðåøåíèþ.
Îäíàêî èíñòèíêòèâíîå ñîïðîòèâëåíèå îáùåñòâà îïîëçàíèþ â ïðîïàñòü ýòíîêîíôåññèîíàëüíîé âðàæäû, ïðîÿâèâøååñÿ â 2005 ã., ñâèäåòåëüñòâóåò î âîçìîæíîñòè ýôôåêòèâíîãî ïðîòèâîäåéñòâèÿ ýòîé ðàçðóøèòåëüíîé ïîëèòèêè.
Èíòåðâüþ âçÿëà êîððåñïîíäåíò ÀÏÍ Âèêòîðèÿ ×åðíûøîâà.
                                                                                       
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